Also they are considered the second prevalent species of rhinoceros after White rhinoceros that exist. This page was last edited on 21 March , at The modern scientific designation Rhinoceros unicornis is adopted from the Greek:
In one five-year field study, only one rhino estimated to be younger than 15 years mated successfully. Like all rhinos, the Indian rhinoceros often defecates near other large dung piles. The Indian rhinoceros forms a variety of social groupings. Threats During late s and in the early s hunting became very common sport. It may have also occurred in Myanmar, southern China and Indochina. Their diets consist almost entirely of grasses, but they also eat leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits, and submerged and floating aquatic plants.
The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain , but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced their range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal. The first recorded captive birth of a rhinoceros was in Kathmandu in , but another successful birth did not occur for nearly years. Although some populations have declined in recent years, overall there has been a population increase for almost years which still continues. Molecular estimates, however, suggest the species may have diverged much earlier, around It may also have existed in Myanmar, southern China, and Indochina, though this is uncertain.
Poaching for rhinoceros horn became the single most important reason for the decline of the Indian rhino after conservation measures were put in place from the beginning of the 20th century, when legal hunting ended. Mothers also use this technique to make food edible for their calves. The species was present in northern Bihar and Oudh at least until as indicated in maps produced by Colonel Gentil. The British public had their first chance to view a rhinoceros presumably this species in ; it unknowingly caused a political row when the notorious Judge Jeffreys , in one of his lighter moments, spread a rumour that his chief rival, Lord Guildford , had been seen riding on it.
Captive females breed as young as four years of age, but in the wild, they usually start breeding only when six years old, which likely indicates they need to be large enough to avoid being killed by aggressive males. American Museum of Natural History It may have also occurred in Myanmar, southern China and Indochina.
Anthrax and the blood-disease septicemia are known to occur. They feed in the mornings and evenings. Any catastrophic event such as disease, civil disorder, poaching, or habitat loss would have a devastating impact on the Indian rhino's status. I have heard from sportsmen of its occurrence as far west as Rohilcund, but it is certainly rare there now, and indeed along the greater part of the Nepal Terai; In the year a total of 41 rhinos were killed in Laokhowa Wildlife sanctuary in India, that made the almost killing every species that existed in this wildlife sanctuary.
Mammals portal Animals portal. The dramatic decline of the rhino population and the extent of poaching prompted the government to institute the Gaida Gasti — a rhino reconnaissance patrol of armed men and a network of guard posts all over Chitwan. Since the one-horned rhinoceros have been the official state animal, the Assam Oil Company Ltd has made rhino as their official logo. The British public had their first chance to view a rhinoceros presumably this species in ; it unknowingly caused a political row when the notorious Judge Jeffreys , in one of his lighter moments, spread a rumour that his chief rival, Lord Guildford , had been seen riding on it. Checklist of South Asian Mammals in: American Society of Mammalogists
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Climate Change and Biodiversity. The Chitwan population has repeatedly been jeopardized by poaching; in alone, poachers killed 37 animals to saw off and sell their valuable horns. Kaziranga, Asian Rhino Specialist Group. Captive females breed as young as four years of age, but in the wild, they usually start breeding only when six years old, which likely indicates they need to be large enough to avoid being killed by aggressive males. There also has been some human encroachment and very heavy livestock grazing. Rhinos will playfully spar, run around, and play with twigs in their mouths.
Poaching, mainly for the use of the horn in traditional Chinese medicine , has remained a constant and has led to decreases in several important populations. In captivity, four rhinos are known to have lived over 40 years, the oldest living to be They feed in the mornings and evenings. The West Bengal populations Jaldapara and Gorumara are affected by high levels of grazing from fringe villages, and there have been weed and climber infestations by Mikania cordata , M. A total of at least 91 animals were poached in Martin, , and since , numbers have declined.
- American Society of Mammalogists Jerdon wrote in There have been serious declines in quality of habitat in some areas. It is also the second-largest living rhinoceros, behind only the white rhinoceros. Currently, the Indian rhinoceros exists in a few small subpopulations in the Nepal and India West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Assam Foose and van Strien ; Grubb, , with an unsuccessful reintroduction of a pair in into Pakistan. Unlike African rhinos, the Indian rhino fights with its incisors, rather than its horns.
- Jelpigoree, a small military station near the Teesta River, was a favourite locality whence to hunt the Rhinoceros and it was from that station Captain Fortescue Indian rhinos also form short-term groupings, particularly at forest wallows during the monsoon season and in grasslands during March and April. Since , the population has recovered well and increased to animals in In Royal Bardia National Park where rhinos were re-introduced there were approximately 40 individuals in Foose et al.
The basal length and occiput is almost 60 cm and 19 cm respectively. The Indian rhinoceros has a thick grey-brown skin with pinkish skin folds and a black horn. They are foremost active in early mornings, late afternoons and at night, but rest during hot days. Into the Holocene , some rhinoceros lived as far west as Gujarat and Pakistan until as recently as 3, years ago. The overall population tendency is to increase especially in Kaziranga, Pabitora, Dudhwa, Jaldapara and Gorumura , with decreases in Manas, Orang now increasing again and Laokhowa.
When poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for settlement, and poaching of wildlife became rampant. Mammals portal Animals portal. Indian Rhino populations occur almost exclusively within and around protected areas. Jerdon wrote in In addition to noises, the rhino uses olfactory communication.
It is also the second-largest living rhinoceros, behind only the white rhinoceros. In Royal Chitwan National Park, the number of individuals has declined from individuals in , to individuals in Asian Rhino Specialist Group , the decrease being due to increased poaching following political instability in Nepal Rothley et al. Since , the population has recovered well and increased to animals in Many of the areas also require targeted programmes to control invasive plants, to prevent the spread of woodland, to safeguard wetlands through appropriate water management, and to limit the extent of grazing by domestic livestock. These cover a number of important and specific conservation measures, including: Any catastrophic event such as disease, civil disorder, poaching, or habitat loss would have a devastating impact on the Indian rhino's status.
The Indian rhinoceros is regionally extinct in Pakistan. Currently, the Indian rhinoceros exists in a few small subpopulations in the Nepal and India West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Assam Foose and van Strien ; Grubb, , with an unsuccessful reintroduction of a pair in into Pakistan. In , about 2, rhinos were estimated in Assam. The species was common in northwestern India and Pakistan until around , but disappeared from this region shortly after this time Rookmaker,